What all is covered below?
Introducing Artificial Intelligence
So, firstly, we need to understand what is this artificial intelligence? In layman’s terms we can say that it is the artificial copy of human intelligence, like an imitation, which is put in machines to make them perform mental as well as physical tasks like we humans do, so in short, it is human-like intelligence possessed by machines. It is the power that has allowed machines do the tasks that were earlier bound to be performed and comprehended by the human beings. And with the aging time and development, Artificial Intelligence can be seen everywhere around us. Self-driving cars, virtual-smart assistants like Siri, Cortana etc. and many more are all examples of artificial intelligence.
Types of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence consists of its various types. And the two broad categorizations of artificial intelligence is on the basis of: firstly, its capabilities and secondly, its functionalities.
On the basis of its capabilities Artificial Intelligence has three types:
- Narrow Artificial Intelligence: It is weak artificial intelligence which has the capability to focus on only one task and has its limits, crossing which can have unpredictable repercussions.
- General Artificial Intelligence: It is the artificial intelligence which has the capability to perform intellectual tasks like a human.
- Super Artificial Intelligence: It is the artificial intelligence which has the capability to perform any task better than the capabilities of a human.
On the basis of its functionalities Artificial Intelligence has four types:
- Reactive Machines: These are the most basic of Artificial Intelligence, which doesn’t store past experiences and just focuses on the present case for future.
- IBM’s Deep Blue (a chess-playing computer) and Google’s Alpha Go are a couple of examples of reactive machines.
- Limited Memory: In this Artificial Intelligence, the storage period of data to be used is short. Autonomous vehicles are one of the most common examples of limited memory artificial intelligence as they store the data of their surroundings for a safe drive and navigation.
- Theory of Mind: This is a undeveloped Artificial Intelligence is yet to be built and will function to understand the human mind for improved social interactions like humans.
- Self-Awareness: This is still a theoretical Artificial Intelligence which is to be built to be better than humans and have their own self-awareness, sentiments and consciousness.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
In today’s times, Artificial Intelligence is used almost everywhere, from cleaning houses, to working in offices, to performing surgeries on people. There are only a few things left, if none, that Artificial Intelligence cannot do. Artificial Intelligence is involved in every sector of our life, from the healthcare sector, to entertainment and gaming, to education and even further more.
Let us see the application of artificial intelligence in a few of these sectors:
Artificial Intelligence in the field of Education:
With the upgrades coming up in the education systems, one of them is the increased involvement of artificial intelligence. Nowadays, in quite a lot of schools, one can find e-classrooms. The number of ed-tech companies are also increasing quite frequently. And a system for doubt-clearing virtual chatbots is also used by a few.
Artificial Intelligence in Social Media:
The various social media sites like Instagram, Facebook etc. have a lot of data to be stored and managed, like user profiles, posts, likes and comments and many more. And these data are at times used to suggest us what we might like, based on our history on that particular site and also to analyze what are the popular trends during a period of time, where the artificial intelligence comes in handy.
Artificial Intelligence in the E-commerce industry:
In the E-commerce industry, artificial intelligence is used a lot for making suggestions to the users based on their previous orders, searches, views and any other data which is available.
Artificial Intelligence in Gaming:
Artificial Intelligence is usually used in gaming when there is a need of Non-Player Characters, which are the characters in a game which are controlled by a machine rather than a player. It is also used in games like Ludo King, where one can play a match against a computer artificial intelligence, which decides the moves as efficiently as humans.
Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare:
The use of artificial intelligence in the healthcare sector is increasing day by day. From performing surgeries to health records, everything has the involvement of artificial intelligence in some or the other way.
Projects of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence projects are the projects and ideas which are developed to make machines more and more like humans or even better than us human beings. The goal is to make machines intelligent so they can learn, reason, perceive, solve problems and do many more such cognitive tasks.
There are various Artificial Intelligence projects and ideas which are being worked on or have been launched in the field of Artificial Intelligence. A few of the common projects of artificial intelligence in various sectors are:
- Voice assistants: This Artificial intelligence works by listening to the commands given by the user, like ‘calling/texting someone’ or ‘opening a certain application’ etc. Some of the popularly used voice assistants are Siri (Apple), Google Assistant, Cortana etc.
- Virtual Bots: These are virtual robots who interact with us usually through chats. Popular examples of this Artificial Intelligence are the chatbots, used on various sites, like MEENA or bots, like quiz bot, search bots etc. used in Telegram application.
- Self-driving vehicles: This is one of the latest works in the field of Artificial Intelligence, which is being widely worked on. In this, the type of Artificial Intelligence mostly used is Limited memory as it stores the data of the surroundings like, the speed of the vehicles, speed limits, distance from nearby vehicles etc. for navigation while driving. With this it also uses other types of Artificial Intelligence.
- XTREME: It is an abbreviation for Cross-Lingual (X) Transfer Evaluation of Multilingual Encoders. It is one of Google’s Artificial Intelligence projects based on languages. A function of this project is to evaluate cross-lingual generalization.
History of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is not a new thing, it embarked on as a fiction but began to become a reality in the mid-nineteenth century. The timeline of the development of Artificial Intelligence is as follows:
1943 – Evolution of Artificial neurons – proposed by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts
1950 – Turing Machine and Turing test – proposed by Alan Mathison Turing
1956 – Birth of Artificial Intelligence: Dartmouth Conference – Artificial Intelligence became a formal academic discipline
1966 – First Chatbot: ELIZA – created by Joseph Weizenbaum
1972 – First Intelligence Robot: WABOT-1 – built in Japan
1974-1980 – First Artificial Intelligence winter – the period of utmost shortage of funds for Artificial Intelligence projects
1980 – Expert System – programmed to compete with human’s higher cognitive process ability
1987-1993 – Second Artificial Intelligence winter – period of extreme shortage of funds for Artificial Intelligence projects
1997 – IBM’s Deep Blue: first computer to beat a world chess champion, Gary Kasparov
2002 – Artificial Intelligence in Home: Roomba, a vacuum cleaner (a home appliance)
2006 – Artificial Intelligence employed by firms like Facebook, Netflix
2011 – IBM’s Watson: wins a quiz show, that required the ability to unravel riddles and problems with high complexity
2012 – Launch of Google now
2014 – Chatbot Eugene Goostman: Wins an Alan Mathison Turing test as nearly one-third, i.e., 33%, of the judges believed it to be human
2015 – Launch of Amazon Echo
Future of Artificial Intelligence
At the dawn of this generation of machines, artificial intelligence would have not been considered possible, but with the progress we have observed it can be said that Artificial Intelligence is developing at a very fast pace. In no time it entered almost every sphere of our lives. Nowadays if we look around, we can see that quite a few tasks which were earlier performed by humans are now overtaken by artificial intelligence. And it is very much possible that in the near future, we are completely dependent on artificial intelligence and start to lose the creative human mind which, in the first place, led to the development of artificial intelligence.
But as much as I believe that artificial intelligence will be very highly developed in a decade or two and will be visible everywhere around us, I also believe that whether that will be good or bad is in the hands of the humans, the makers of artificial intelligence, and how we will choose to use this creation of ours. Will we stop thinking from our own minds and just let the machines think for us or will we use this amazing mind of ours and put it into further good use.
Data Science v/s Artificial Intelligence v/s Machine Learning
Artificial Intelligence and Data Science are inter-related terms but they are not the same. In the field of Data Science, data stored is organized, studied and meaning is derived from this data, which is also used for machine learning. Whereas the field of Artificial Intelligence is about making machines perform cognitive tasks like human beings.
Artificial Intelligence is also sometimes considered to be a synonym of machine learning but that is not true. What is right is that both, artificial intelligence and machine learning are interconnected parts of computer science, as Machine learning is about using the data collected in the past to make decisions without direct programming, which is not exactly what artificial intelligence is about.
And when seeing all three terms together, i.e., Data Science, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, we can say that they all are co-related, as they all have to do with machines and data in some or the other way. Where in Data Science, data is used to derive some meaning from it, in Machine Learning, the past data is used for making present decisions and in Artificial Intelligence, while we do store data and derive meaning from it, it is more about how the machines use that data to stimulate human behavior and cognitive ability.
To sum up everything concisely, now it is understood that artificial intelligence is the human-like intelligence given to machines so that they can perform cognitive tasks like we humans do and even better at times. And this ability is also further divided into various types, which are at broadly used to categorize the artificial intelligence according to its capabilities and functional abilities. It can also be seen that artificial intelligence is everywhere around us and its presence is still gradually growing with the help of the new technologies that are coming up.
And while there has been a lot of development in the field of artificial intelligence, there are still a lot more possibilities for improvements and novel ideas and works in the field. With the increased development and possibilities of development of artificial intelligence, the risks that come with it will also increase. And as we say that everything has its pros and cons, artificial intelligence too has both, but which will weigh heavier depends on how it is put into use by us.
SO, USE WISELY!!!
BECAUSE WITH POWER (gained by us due to the development of artificial intelligence), COMES RESPONSIBILITIES (to use it correctly)!!!